The chance of a successful Earth defense would be minuscule and life probably would be obliterated if our planet were bombarded by giant cosmic particles, like those of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 that fragmented and slammed into Jupiter in July 1994 (2). Moreover, if populations are not significantly dispersed from the Earth to other habitats they will most probably also be extinguished. Consequently, the alternative to population dispersal is death and extinction. - Image Credit: Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 FAQ.www.physics.sfasu.edu/astro/sl9.html
Speaking arrangements can be secured by CONTACTING Talako through E-mail at choctaw@jps.net


Buzz Aldrin


British Interplaneta


Mars Global Surveyor


Copyright: (c) ? 1998-2000 Talako (Choctaw Society of Astrobiologists), All Rights Reserved.
Author: Talako
For: NASA Astrobiology Institute January 29, 2001.
Re: Observations and interpretations on the future of Man. July 20, 1998 ? December 7, 2000.


The Cosmic Catastrophe Survival Strategy:


The development of space flight and nuclear explosive technology seem to verify the argument that there is an upward spiral of intellectual evolution on Earth. Although some other terrestrial animals exhibit a degree of intelligence only human beings can build machines capable of interplanetary flight, and have invented nuclear weaponry that can be designed to temporarily protect the Earth from catastrophic cosmic bombardments. Moreover, since October 1996 technological societies have learned how symbiotic life is by utilizing the enclosed laboratory Biosphere 2, operated by Columbia University outside Tucson Arizona. While living in the Biosphere it was discovered that humans can not exist long in an isolated environment without many of Earth?s living organisms, or for that matter nonliving variable factors to sustain them in an ecosystem (1).
Moreover, in order to avoid extinction from some cosmic catastrophes mankind can use actualized scientific knowledge to protect its? world by sending rockets with nuclear warheads to intercept incoming comets or asteroids. However, animal and plant populations must eventually be dispersed to other planets, or space habitats, that have been terraformed, to avoid major cosmic catastrophes that will cause extinction. As has been demonstrated in Biosphere 2, hospitality of these new environments to the different population genetics of Earth?s living things is a necessity to accomplish the long time symbiotic survival of human beings. If populations are not significantly dispersed and our planet is bombarded by giant cosmic particles, like those of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 that fragmented and slammed into Jupiter in July 1994 (2), the chance of a successful defense of the Earth would be minuscule and life would probably be obliterated. According to the Department of Physics and Astronomy at Stephen F. Austin State University?s Web Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 FAQ, ?The real show-stopper was fragment G which struck Jupiter with an estimated energy equivalent to 6,000,000 megatons of TNT (about 600 times the estimated arsenal of the world).? However, when it is remembered that fragment G was only one of 21 displaced pieces of the original comet and a similar comet could rifle into the Earth, that deduction is the real show-stopper. After viewing the result of some of the impacts through my own home telescope it was clear to me that life?s tenure on this planet is not secure. Reinforcing this, the Encarta (R) 97 Encyclopedia reports the Martian meteorite (ALH84001) seems to have been blasted off that planet by an asteroid impact about 16 million years ago. This event must have been a major catastrophe, probably significant enough to extinguish Martian life if it existed, and the existence of Martian life is not out of the question. Rod-shaped structures found on the meteorite have been interpreted as tiny fossilized bacteria by some. Moreover, Simon Clemett of Lockheed Martin at NASA's Johnson Space Center reported on the presence of magnetite in meteorite ALH84001. ?About 25 percent of the magnetite crystals found inside globules of carbonate rock in the Allan Hills 84001 meteorite from Antarctica seem to resemble crystals grown by an Earthling bacteria known as MV-1. Since the crystals were formed before the meteorite was blasted free of Mars in a giant collision, only Martian bacteria could have made them?if they are biologically made crystals at all, that is.? Clemett presented work by a team led by his colleague Kathie Thomas-Keprta at the August 30, 2000 Meteoritical Society meeting in Chicago.
Furthermore, NASA has found indications of climatic change and signs that previously Mars had liquid water and a warmer, thicker atmosphere (3). On December 4, 2000 a NASA HQ/JPL release stated, ?In what ultimately may be their most significant discovery yet, Mars scientists say high-resolution pictures showing layers of sedimentary rock paint a portrait of an ancient Mars that long ago may have featured numerous lakes and shallow seas.? This evidence further indicates that on Mars there once might have evolved simple forms of life that were blown into space and possible extinction by a giant asteroid/comet Mars cosmic collision and it is safe to conclude that a similar event could occur on Earth.
Consequently, it has not yet been determined how many Near Earth Asteroids (NEA) there are or how many could significantly damage the Earth. And known historical impacts on the Earth and other planets along with more factors that will be mention indicate we will probably face continued future asteroid and comet bombardments. Short period comet paths are not exactly known since they move in more than one way. Although planets follow regular orbits around the Sun a comet's path is constantly rerouted by the gravitational pull of the planets, the Sun, and its? own water vapor outgassing as it nears the Sun. Likewise, long period comets emerging from the Oort cloud, at the outer limits of our solar system, are even more unpredictable. In fact they are currently absolutely unknown, can surprise the Earth at any moment, and we have at this time absolutely no means of predicting the enormity of their danger to our planet. Also in the November 2001 issue of the journal Science, new studies are helping fill in astronomers' views of how near Earth asteroids orbit the sun and how they ended up as NEA in the first place. The picture emerging is one in which asteroids in the belt between Mars and Jupiter collide, shatter and then clump together into families, migrate into regions of space where the gravity of Jupiter can jar them loose from their orbits and finally take up residence close to Earth. "It's pretty clear that [near-Earth asteroids] come from the main asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter," explains Joseph Stuart of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, an author of one of the reports. These new studies, are "refining the details of how that might happen." Stuart, who compiled data from the Lincoln Near-Earth Asteroid Research (LINEAR) project, found 1,200 more kilometer-size rocks orbiting the sun than recent counts have detected. "It's key for astronomers to know how many such objects there are and how they revolve around the sun in order to assess the risk that one might collide with Earth, he notes." Therefore, randomness in space, is currently a deficiency of human knowledge and the number of unknown NEA along with newly emerging NEA, from the main asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter, create a chaotic situation causing collision predictability to be currently without merit. It then seems just a matter of time coupled with the chaotic nature of asteroid/comet orbits, and the eventual emergence of an unknown threatening comet from the Oort cloud before the Earth will be impacted by an asteroid or comet capable of catastrophic devastation or at best great regional damage. Reinforcing this concept is current NASA.gov data, ?NEAs are a dynamically young population whose orbits evolve on 100-million-year time scales because of collisions and gravitational interactions with the Sun and the terrestrial planets. The largest presently known is 1036 Ganymed, with an approximate diameter of 25.5 miles (41 kilometers). Estimates suggest at least a thousand NEAs may be large enough -- 0.6 mile (1 kilometer) or more in diameter -- to threaten Earth." NASA.gov data also document that on June 30, 1908, a small asteroid 330 feet (100 meters) in diameter exploded over the remote region of Tunguska in Siberia, devastating more than half a million acres of forest. One of the most recent close calls occurred on March 23, 1989, " . . when an asteroid 0.25-mile (0.4- kilometer) wide came within 400,000 miles (640,000 kilometers) of Earth. Surprised scientists estimated that Earth and the asteroid -- weighing 50 million tons and traveling at 46,000 miles/hour (74,000 kilometers/hour) -- had passed the same point in space just six hours apart.? Also the Report of the British National Space Centre?s Task force on potentially hazardous NEAR EARTH OBJECTS, September 2000, B:3 designated that the March 23, 1989 NEO was Asclepius and estimated it had a diameter of 300 meters. It is interesting to speculate how Asclepius? orbit was affected by its? close encounter with the Earth and how it would be affected by that of other objects along its? journey. It is safe to assume it will probably not return to intersect the Earth?s orbit exactly as it had on March 23, 1989. If that is the case, and the next time the asteroid that missed the Earth passes by, how close will it be to a rendezvous with our planet and do we have all the data necessary to answer the question?
Important mechanisms insuring the continuation of life's existence are adaptation, dispersion, and reproduction. Coupled with these mechanisms is life's prime motive, which is survival. Mankind's survival motive compels him to defend Earth from cosmic catastrophe unless the threat is overwhelming; like that witnessed as comets collided with Jupiter in 1994. If the threat is overwhelming mankind can disperse kindred symbiotic life forms to live in or on habitats off the Earth. When this is done, humankind will have increased its chances of surviving a catastrophic cosmic collision, because people can then colonize the designed hospitable environment populated with living things that complement human existence. Consequently, since mankind has intellectually and socially evolved so as to acquire the ability to protect the Earth from minor cosmic catastrophes, and can expedite the dispersal of life to other planets if needed, these are uniquely fundamental survival roles in animal/human evolutionary development. In fact only humans have ever occupied the biological niche that is the playing of these roles and it seems evident that evolution has put mankind in the position to be planetary lifesavers.
The life on any planet will probably become extinct over time, if for no other reason than the death of the planet's sun. In our case the sun will expand to a red giant before collapsing. Therefore, unless interplanetary travel is used to disperse living things from this world, life from it will probably dead-end. The only evident design capable of assuring multiple and highly evolved species survival, through time and cosmic catastrophe, is the evolution of intelligent beings working in various specialized teams and functioning as a creative unit. It also seems evident that the beings must have at least the capability of developing a nuclear comet/asteroid defense and interplanetary flight; thus they can occupy a unique biological niche and act as planetary lifesavers.
Consequently, intelligent beings capable of interplanetary flight and nuclear technology have evolved by way of natural selection and life's prime motive, which is survival. It therefore seems evident that any intelligent beings capable of space flight and nuclear explosive technology may not have evolved on this world, or possibly other worlds, to just survive as a planet bound species. Instead it is probable that people have evolved to occupy the niche that could perpetuate the survival of evolved life by way of planetary protection and interplanetary dispersion. If this is not the case, then the human race is destined for a planet-bound extinction, either by its own doing or through some other disaster as has been the case for all of Earth's previous dominant species. Eventually, another species more capable than Homo sapiens will have an opportunity to develop, and the protection and dispersal of life from this world may take place. If not, life will probably dead-end on this planet as it might have on Mars.
As Darwin prophetically remarked in his last paragraph of Descent of Man, ?Man may be excused for feeling some pride at having risen, though not through his own exertions, to the very summit of the organic scale; and the fact of his having thus risen, instead of having been aboriginally placed there, may give him hope for a still higher destiny in the distant future.?
In the late 1970?s evidence to support the theory that a comet caused catastrophic destruction of the environment leading to the extinction of the dinosaurs was discovered by Luis and Walter Alvarez. Working with a team of scientists from the University of California they were making a study of the rocks around the K-T boundary in Gubbio, Italy. In particular, they were looking at a layer of clay at the boundary point that contained an unusual spike of the rare comet-enriched element, iridium. This spike revealed that the levels of iridium contained in the clay were roughly 30 times normal. Later, comet-enriched material from the impact's explosion was found dispersed in similar geologic time scale formations all over the world. With radiometric dating it was also found that the time of the comet?s impact and the dinosaur extinction 65 million years ago occurred almost simultaneously (4). Evidence then suggests that the superbly successful dinosaurs became extinguished in a fiery cosmic catastrophe, because they did not have the intelligence to either protect the Earth or disperse life to other planets. Consequently, the evolution of intelligent space traveling nuclear explosive capable beings is life?s cosmic catastrophe survival strategy. As Darwin hoped, this strategy seems to be Mans, ?higher destiny? and is essential for the survival of evolved species from this planet. In the broadest context imaginable, mankind must go forth and multiply.
Biologic Evolution:
In 1871, in Descent of Man, Charles Darwin wrote about his evolutionary theory, ?It seemed worth while to try how far the principle of evolution would throw light on some of the more complex problems in the natural history of man.? Later in the same work he wrote, ?Now when viewed by the light of our knowledge of the whole organic world, their meaning is unmistakable. The great principle of evolution stands up clear and firm...?
Currently it is believed that male/female (sexual) reproduction seems to be an indisputable factor facilitating the genetic evolution of animals and plants. Combinations, permutations, random mutations, speciation, and population genetics, along with other and unknown concepts, influence coded DNA information delivered to offspring by two opposite gender parents. Thus, offspring produced from males and females have greater differences from their parents than offspring from a single (asexual) parent. The children then have a greater ability to adapt in ways that will increase or decrease their chances to survive and reproduce in a changing environment. Those that better adapt and most often survive and reproduce will pass on their different inherited genetic characteristics to their offspring. Thus, there is change or evolution, and if the advantageous adaptation is markedly different, species characteristics may be modified greatly over time. These are arguments validating Charles Darwin?s theories and also some of the reasons, following the development of sexual reproduction, that there has been an increase in the speed of biological evolution on Earth.
Cosmic Evolution:
It seems evident that another kind of evolution takes place when energy/matter has changed or evolved through time to form particles. The particles sometimes seem to change and further increase in mass. To explain this, it is theorized that matter evolved or changed from energy when subsequently related strings, or maybe multiple quarks, emerged as matter?s constituents following the big bang, which seems to be the first event in cosmic history between 12 and 14 billion years ago. Afterward protons, electrons, and neutrons were fashioned from matter's constituents along with antimatter, other particles, and possibly even more things not yet considered. However, it is better understood that hydrogen and helium probably would have been the primary products of the big bang. Later some of the gasses were concentrated and compressed by their own gravity, forming stars, and the heavier elements were created by fusion reactions in those stars or later in supernovas. Consequently, energy and matter seem to be naturally changing in a kind of cosmic evolution, and although energy can be transformed, it cannot be created or destroyed.
According to Einstein?s most famous equation, E = mc2, it is apparent that matter and energy are fundamentally interrelated. This being the case, energy seems to be the original stuff of matter?s cosmic evolution. Life might or might not be the ultimate result of the cosmic evolution of matter from energy. However, life in the universe is a fact and a consequence of cosmic evolution, because without the required elements created by star/supernova fusion there would be no materials to make life.
Adapt or Perish:
Living things that are better adapted to their environment have an advantage over their competitors. The better adapted probably will have a greater chance to survive. Successful reproduction is necessary to facilitate adaptive change; otherwise the change will have great difficulty being introduced into a gene pool. Furthermore, dispersion of matter increases the chances that life will develop in different places in the universe. Also dispersion of life on a planet, or in the universe, is preferable so life will not easily be obliterated by local or cosmic catastrophe. Thus, forms of life will have a greater chance to survive a catastrophe, cosmic or otherwise, and produce offspring.
Organisms that incorporate changes in genetics, life style, and habitat resulting in successful adaptation, dispersion, and reproduction tend to increase their chances of survival over competing organisms not changing. Therefore, organisms better at adapting, dispersing, and reproducing will be the probable progenitors of future generations occupying a similar biological niche. In the long run, when the environment is in a constant state of change, as it seems to be in our universe, biological evolution is fundamentally essential to the ongoing existence of life itself. In other words, in a constantly changing environment, forms of life that can not adapt to change probably become extinct, if for no other reason than the death of their sun, which would be the ultimate cosmic catastrophe. These brief fundamental principles are essential in order to understand the evolution of Homo sapiens as a species capable of asteroid/comet protection and/or dispersal of life on/or from the Earth to avoid extinction.


A red giant star exploded in the Leptus constellation creating heavy elements and changing matter into energy E = mc2 - Image Credit: Hubble Space Telescope Public Pictures http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/pictures.html

In Trinity New Mexico a United States, Los Alamos, scientific team headed by Dr. Robert Oppenheimer on July 16, 1945, successfully tested the First Atomic bomb. As predicted by Einstein?s equation, E = mc2, enormous nuclear energy was released when matter was changed into energy. - Image Credit: The Atomic Bomb: A turning point in world history Society > History > By Time Period > Twentieth Century > Atomic Age members.home.net/jeromej/atomic

Forms of life incorporating changes in genetics, life style, and habitat resulting in successful adaptation, dispersion, and reproduction tend to increase their chances of survival over competing organisms not changing. Consequently, humans are the most successful primates partly because of adaptive change, their worldwide dispersal, and the ability to out reproduce other primates. From left to right the primate species depicted on the tree are: a lemur (Lemur catta), an adapid (Hoanghonius stehlini), a tarsier (Tarsius bancanus), an omomyid (Shoshonius cooperi), a proto-monkey (Eosimias centennicus), a South American monkey (Saimiri sciureus), an Old World monkey (Mandrillus sphinx), a baboon, a great ape (Gorilla gorilla), and a human (Homo sapiens). - Image Credit: Northern University of Illinois. Graphics Credit: Mark A. Klingler, Carnegie Museum of Natural History www.bioanth.org/positions/niu.htm - 19k

Cindy Margolis has been credited for many years with having the most downloaded images on the Internet. More people view the numerous pictures of this glamorous blond supermodel-turned-actress than any other Internet item and this example of her Internet success clearly helps explain human sexual motives. Although her mental charms and virtues are as extraordinary as her physical beauty her pictures have not been downloaded because of her intellect, but instead as Charles Darwin wrote, ?Man scans with scrupulous care the character and pedigree of his horses, cattle, and dogs before he matches them; but when he comes to his own marriage he rarely, or never, takes any such care. He is impelled by nearly the same motives as the lower animals, when they are left to their own free choice, though he is in so far superior to them that he highly values mental charms and virtues.? In other words most men often seem to be little more interested, for sexual reproductive purposes, in the intellect of maidens such as Ms. Margolis than a stallion would be with a mare, and in each case mating is generally desired often, and with little care for the successful consequences. Hence, physical attraction seems to be the paramount motive driving most human replication. Although females also appear to value mental charms and virtues, along with their male counterparts, they often seem to be impelled by nearly the same motives as the lower animals. Consequently, human reproductive drives have caused our planet to be over-populated with Homo sapiens, most of whom are competing for diminishing resources in their struggle to survive, and the animal that is the greatest threat to humankind is the human animal. However, strange as it might sound this stressful, monstrous, heartless, and often deadly competition between people has brought about an increase in human technological, if not social, evolution. And principally because of the stressful competition humans have created advanced specialty teams capable of saving their species and much of the Earth's evolved life as well. - Image Credit: Cindy Margolis.com http://www.cindymargolis.com/

Einstein and Leo Szilard, 1946, composing a letter to President FDR asking that nuclear technology be channeled toward peaceful purposes. Earlier in another and more famous letter to Roosevelt, August 2, 1939 Einstein had advocated the development of the Atomic bomb because he felt Germany was also developing the weapon. Leo Szilard had encouraged Einstein to write both letters. Consequently, the Atomic bomb and the development of the peaceful use of nuclear energy were both results of human survival motives brought about by war and its? subsequent competition. - Image Credit: Albert Einstein Pictureswww.th.physik.uni-frankfurt.de/~jr/physpiceinstein.html - 7k

Professor Einstein, the man who developed the theory behind the release of nuclear energy and atomic explosives, consulting with Dr. Robert Oppenheimer, the team leader of the Manhattan Project, which developed the Atomic bomb. - Image Credit: Albert Einstein Pictures www.th.physik.uni-frankfurt.de/~jr/physpiceinstein.html -

Over 340 Sioux man, women, and children peacefully surrendered to the U.S. Army and were subsequently murdered in what became known as the Wounded Knee Massacre of 1890. Thus, culminated a more than 300-year military struggle for the resources of North America. Charles Darwin might have explained this behavior on the part of the United States government when he wrote, ?Man tends to increase at a greater rate than his means of subsistence; consequently he is occasionally subjected to a severe struggle for existence, and natural selection will have effected whatever lies within its scope.? However, some people have severely struggled much more than others and natural selection in this case was the murder of the innocent Sioux. - Image Credit: BIG BEAR Home Page, Native American, Indian, Natives, Teepee ... Wounded Knee Massacre.Great Sioux Nation, Native ... www.geocities.com/Nashville/3001/linkpage.html - 6k

The Nazi government�s attack on German citizens of the Jewish faith along with the burning of a Berlin synagogue November 3, 1938 is remembered as the infamous Kristallnacht. Historically most people have been forced to struggle militarily, economically, personally and in countless other ways to survive. However, some people have severely struggled far more than others. - Image Credit: The History Place http://www.historyplace.com/index.html




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